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Austin Bennett
Austin Bennett

4m Fine Ng Adapt 15 Greek

Pottery is traditionally divided into three types: earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. All three may be glazed and unglazed. All may also be decorated by various techniques. In many examples the group a piece belongs to is immediately visually apparent, but this is not always the case; for example fritware uses no or little clay, so falls outside these groups. Historic pottery of all these types is often grouped as either "fine" wares, relatively expensive and well-made, and following the aesthetic taste of the culture concerned, or alternatively "coarse", "popular", "folk" or "village" wares, mostly undecorated, or simply so, and often less well-made.

4m fine ng adapt 15 greek

Stoneware is very tough and practical, and much of it has always been utilitarian, for the kitchen or storage rather than the table. But "fine" stoneware has been important in China, Japan and the West, and continues to be made. Many utilitarian types have also come to be appreciated as art.

Despite an extensive prehistoric record of pottery, including painted wares, little "fine" or luxury pottery was made in the subcontinent in historic times. Hinduism discourages eating off pottery, which probably largely accounts for this. Most traditional Indian pottery vessels are large pots or jars for storage, or small cups or lamps, often treated as disposable. In contrast there are long traditions of sculpted figures, often rather large, in terracotta.

Pottery was hardly seen on the tables of elites from Hellenistic times until the Renaissance, and most medieval wares were coarse and utilitarian, as the elites ate off metal vessels. Painted Hispano-Moresque ware from Spain, developing the styles of Islamic Spain, became a luxury for late medieval elites, and was adapted in Italy into maiolica in the Italian Renaissance. Both of these were faience or tin-glazed earthenware, and fine faience continued to be made until around 1800 in various countries, especially France, with Nevers faience and several other centres. In the 17th century, imports of Chinese export porcelain and its Japanese equivalent raised the market expectations of fine pottery, and European manufacturers eventually learned to make porcelain, often in the form of "artificial" or soft-paste porcelain, and from the 18th century European porcelain and other wares from a great number of producers became extremely popular, reducing Asian imports.

In North Staffordshire hundreds of companies produced all kinds of pottery, from tablewares and decorative pieces to industrial items. The main pottery types of earthenware, stoneware and porcelain were all made in large quantities, and the Staffordshire industry was a major innovator in developing new varieties of ceramic bodies such as bone china and jasperware, as well as pioneering transfer printing and other glazing and decorating techniques. In general Staffordshire was strongest in the middle and low price ranges, though the finest and most expensive types of wares were also made.[78]

Proper ventilation to guarantee adequate indoor air quality can reduce or eliminate workers' exposure to fine particulate matter, carbon monoxide, certain heavy metals, and crystalline silica (which can lead to silicosis). A more recent study at Laney College, Oakland, California suggests that all these factors can be controlled in a well-designed workshop environment.[87]

Selecting optimum eukaryotic integral membrane proteins for structure determination by rapid expression and solubilization screening. Li M, Hays FA, Roe-Zurz Z, Vuong L, Kelly L, Ho CM, Robbins RM, Pieper U, O'Connell JD 3rd, Miercke LJ, Giacomini KM, Sali A, Stroud RM. J Mol Biol. 2009 Jan 23;385(3):820-30. A strategy for identification and quantification of detergents frequently used in the purification of membrane proteins. Laura R. Eriks, June A. Mayor and Ronald S. Kaplan. Analytical Biochemistry Volume 323, Issue 2, 15 December 2003, Pages 234-241. A high-throughput method for membrane protein solubility screening: The ultracentrifugation dispersity sedimentation assay Daniel A.P. Gutmann, Eiichi Mizohata, Simon Newstead, Sebastian Ferrandon, Peter J.F. Henderson, Hendrik W. van Veen, and Bernadette Byrne. Protein Sci 2007 16: 1422-1428 When worlds colloid. Michael C. Weiner. Protein Science (2006), 15:2679-2681. Effects of additives on surfactant phase behavior relevant to bacteriorhodopsin crystallization. Bryan Berger, Colleen Gendron, Abraham Lenhoff and Eric Kaler. Protein Science (2006), 15:2682-2696. A defined protein-detergent-lipid complex for crystallization of integral membrane proteins: The cytochrome b6f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis. Zhang H, Kurisu G, Smith JL, Cramer WA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Apr 29;100(9):5160-3.

Ben-Shem et al (Acta Cryst. (2003). D59, 1824-1827) in the crystallization of higher plant photosystem I found the detergent to chlorophyll ratio had to be carefully optimized in all purification steps in order to produce ordered crystals. Crystals were produced in 22.5 mM MES-bis-tris pH 6.6, 0.5% v/v PEG 400, 8.1 mM ammonium citrate, 6% w/v PEG 6000. Crystals appeared in 2 to 3 days and matured in size within two weeks time, yet the loss of sharp edges and a degradation of diffraction quality was observed after an additional two weeks time. The initial diffraction resolution of 20 Angstrom was improved to 6 Angstrom through a seemingly tedious refinement of isolation, crystallization and cryo conditions. Again, the detergent to chlorophyll ratio as well as the pea type and growing conditions with adjustment of the preparation to seasonal changes were essential to improvement of crystal quality.

Here is the compiled 'tricks of the trade' for microbatch crystal mounting from the CCP4B community. Rebecca Page, Brown University, September 2006. Original Post to CCP4 community: I find mounting crystals grown in microbatch drops difficult compared to mounting crystals grown out of sitting drops, primarily because of the oil layer. Do most people simply use the oil layer as a cryoprotectant? If not, do you typically try to remove the oil prior to transferring the crystal to a cryoprotectant. I'd like to compile 'tricks of the trade' for mounting crystals out of microbatch plates. Any advice would be helpful and I'll compile the list of responses and repost for the community. SUMMARY OF RESPONSES Sorry if this sounds a crazy suggestion, but sometimes the simplest things work. Did you try to mount the crystal directly on a loop and see if it diffracts. The oil can be cryoprotectant. The setup would be: 1- fish the crystal with a loop 2-do not care if it cames across the oil layer and it retains the oil. 3-mount in the cryostream 4-shoot X-rays and see if you have diffraction ****************** If everything fails and you have few more drops of crystals and do not know how to freeze mount, here is another way you can try :- If you have few crystals in the drop under oil and the drop size (excluding oil!!) is few microliters: add 10 microlitre of mother liquor (you can get the mother liquor conc. based on few trials; it should be few % more than the final conc. of the one you had used while setting up the microbatch, a decent start will be 5 % more ), allow it to stand for few minutes. Then use the classical cappillary mounting method to suck the crystals slowly out and onto a cover slip. If possible try to remove as much as possible (you may not be able to remove everything) the halo of oil surrounding the drop on cover slip (using the same capillary watching under microscope to make sure you are not sucking out the crystals). The use of mother liquor (the 10 ul) is to basically to reduce the oil that come along when you suck the crystals, so if necessary you can use more ul's. Now quickly scoop the crystal with a loop and dip in the cryoprotectant and freeze it, in the usual way. This has worked for me, though it may need some more standardization depending on your case. ****************** In one case I had crystals grown under paraffin oil in microbatch, which required 25% glycerol for cryoprotection. However, when I transferred them directly to the base condition + 25% glycerol, they would invariably break up. So I ended up picking up a crystal with a loop, pulling it through the oil, and putting it on a coverslip. Then I removed the surrounding liquid and quickly replaced it with 4 microliters of base solution + 5% glycerol, observing the process under the microscope. The crystal seemed to hold up fine, and I then progressively replaced the solution with base condition + 10%, 15%, 20% and finally 25% glycerol. The resulting crystal froze nicely, and provided a 2A dataset. Any oil that was still around the crystal from the first transfer was probably completely removed by the cryo/washing steps, as other people have already described. ****************** I think the success of mounting out of microbatch depends on the type of oil and plate you are using. We successfully are able to transfer crystals out of drops and into cryoprotectants using a standard hampton mounted cryoloop. You need a microscope that has a decent distance between the plate and actual lens apparatus so you can get the cryoloop down far enough into the well without covering up your viewpoint. When the drop contains the cryoprotectant already... then we directly transfer to liquid nitrogen and do not try and remove the oil.... at that point the oil only covers the solution which surrounds your crystal. One of the main benifits of vapour diffusion under oil vs. other sitting drop type methods is that the cry.

Abstract: We have re-determined the crystal structure of yeast tRNAPhe to 2.0 Å resolution using 15 year old crystals. The accuracy of the new structure, due both to higher resolution data and formerly unavailable refinement methods, consolidates the previous structural information, but also reveals novel details. In particular, the water structure around the tightly bound Mg2+ is now clearly resolved, and hence provides more accurate information on the geometry of the magnesium-binding sites and the role of water molecules in coordinating the metal ions to the tRNA. We have assigned a total of ten magnesium ions and identified a partly conserved geometry for high-affinity Mg2+ binding. In the electron density map there is also clear density for a spermine molecule binding in the major groove of the T?C arm and also contacting a symmetry-related tRNA molecule. Interestingly, we have also found that two specific regions of the tRNA in the crystals are partially cleaved. The sites of hydrolysis are within the D and anticodon loops in the vicinity of Mg2+. Atomic resolution structure of a succinimide intermediate in E.coli CheY. Simonovic M, Volz K. J Mol Biol. 2002 Sep 27;322(4):663-7.




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